Pistachio reduce the risk of lung cancer

  • Daily consumption of pistachios – a rich dietary source of gamma-tocopherol – may help reduce the risk of lung and other cancers, according to research presented at the American Association for Cancer Research’s Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research Conference, held from Dec.

  • Hernandez, a registered dietician from the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and colleagues randomly assigned 36 healthy volunteers to either add 68 grams (about two ounces) of pistachios per day to their regular diet or continue with their regular diet.
  • After four weeks of intervention, the researchers found that the pistachio-diet group had a significantly increased energy-adjusted dietary intake of gamma-tocopherol, and significantly increased cholesterol-adjusted serum gamma-tocopherol compared to the regular-diet group.
  • “Pistachios are one of those ‘good-for-you’ nuts, and 2 ounces per day could be incorporated into dietary strategies designed to reduce the risk of lung cancer without significant changes in body mass index,” Hernandez said in a statement.

 

Key tools to maximize pistachio production in ‘trickier’ saline soil

Key tools to maximize pistachio production in ‘trickier’ saline soil

The expansion of California pistachio acreage into “trickier” soils means a higher level of management to maximize nut production. There are areas on the West Side of the San Joaquin Valley where planted pistachio trees are presenting challenges to growers and managers, says Daniele Zaccaria, assistant University of California (UC) Cooperative Extension (UCCE) specialist who focuses in agricultural water management and irrigation.

Much of this former cotton ground, he says, has higher salt concentration, noting that infiltration rates and salt levels can vary across individual planting sites.

Zaccaria and other researchers have monitored the effects of salinity on tree health and productivity in the Hanford and Lemoore areas of Kings County.

High saline conditions can make it more difficult to accurately determine evapotranspiration, or ET, to schedule irrigations, he explains. Tree growth when high salts are present can reduce canopy size, affecting ET calculations.

Among the effects of salinity damage are osmotic effects where ions in soil-applied water increase the soil’s ability to retain water, leaving less water available to plants and specific ions which directly damage plants. Tree sensitivity increases with time which can impact trunk and root storage.

Osmotic effects dominate early. Specific ion damage is more likely in older trees.

Here’s what’s known about pistachio salinity tolerance:

  • Trees are tolerant to ECe (electrical conductivity of soil) to up to 8.4 dS /m-a measurement of salinity;
  • There is evidence of osmotic adjustment by trees via ion uptake;
  • Rootstocks differ in their salinity tolerance;
  • More sensitivity to salts exists during vegetative growth; and
  • Trees are more tolerant later in the season.

Salinity management guidelines recommended by UCCE pomologist Louise Ferguson start with a pre-plant soil and water analysis. She says remediation options should be considered if the combination is higher than 6 dS/m.

The first step is to determine if a high reading is due to sodicity (when water is dominated by sodium) or salinity (when salt concentration in soil water is high enough to affect production) or both.

Sodicity should be addressed first, says Ferguson. Gypsum applications and winter leaching can reduce sodicity. Improving infiltration rates and pushing salts below the root zone can improve growing conditions.

Salinity can be reduced by winter leaching or higher amounts of irrigation during the growing season. The recommendation is 100 percent of ET, plus 33 percent more water.

Rootstock choices can impact tree growth and production in higher saline conditions. Ferguson recommends hybrid rootstocks developed for salinity tolerance. Some rootstocks adapt better than others to specific conditions.

At the production stage of tree growth, the leaf, soil, and water sodium levels should be assessed in this order. If leaves show higher levels of salts, gypsum applications or leaching should be considered.

Ferguson notes that boron is not considered toxic until levels reach 1,300 parts per million in an August leaf sample.

Allowing the soil to dry out between irrigations should be avoided in high saline conditions. The impact of high EC in pistachio is more apparent during drought, she notes. Higher rainfall this year should have a positive impact on salinity. Surface water use will also help.

AMEC

The revolutionary AMEC® molecule arrives to Chile

AMECSYSTEM® technology works with AMEC®, a novel molecule developed by Codiagro after working for many years with carboxylic acids, that is now available in Chile through AMecological.

AMEC® is the result of several years of research with carboxylic acids and the joint work between Codiagro and the Department of Experimental Sciences of the University of Jaume I (UJI) in Castellon, Spain.

The process begins with the triple selection of carboxylic acids based on: 

a) Low molecular weight (3 to 5 carbons).

b) Affinity with the nutrient that will be complexed.

c) Affinity with the means of entry to the plant (foliage or root). 

To complete the optimum development of the AMEC® molecule, an electro biochemical process (patented by Codiagro) that strengthens the links between the nutrients and the carboxyl is applied to the selected carboxyl. This ensures a greater degree of mobility and permanence of the modified molecule within the plant’s flow, which facilitates delivering the nutrient where it is required. 

AMEC® is an advanced and environmentally safe technological innovation that has allowed temporarily altering a large number of metabolic processes of fruits and vegetables that benefit producers, such as: increasing crop production, improving quality parameters, and prolonging the plant’s lifespan. 

Unlike the synthetic growth regulators and phytohormones, the AMEC® molecule induces temporary physiological changes that, when used repeatedly, promote an increase in yields and a wide response to adverse environmental conditions. 

Apart from providing essential nutrients for the plant, AMEC® promotes cumulative effects on the plants, including the following:

• It works as an antiperspirant. The foliage loses significantly less water during the initial vegetative growth due to the better forming and structuring of the young plant tissues; a result of the strengthening of the cell membranes of the new tissue caused by the increased calcium pectates and the synthesis of wall phenols and glycoproteins in the middle lamella.  

• Photosynthetic activator; significantly increases CO2 fixation and, consequently, photosynthetic rate.   

• Efficient use of water (UEA). Efficient use of water is described as the ratio between the photosynthetic rate expressed in CO2 fixation and transpiration rate. Increased efficiency results in increased formation of photo-assimilates or plant biomass and, therefore, in the possible increase in production.   

• Increase in the quality and quantity of photo-assimilates. The combined action between AMEC® acids and nutrients, such as potassium, nitrogen, and phosphorus result in an increased availability and mobilization of reserves in the form of free sugars in the cytoplasm, accompanied by a high rate of available energy due to a greater photosynthetic activity. 

This increase in sugars leads to having a higher availability of polyols, such as sorbitol, mannitol and inositol that join the carbohydrate flow in the phloem. The osmotic gradient induced in the phloem requires additional water from the xylem, thus promoting the roots’ nutritional absorption, transport, and distribution, especially to the organs that need it the most. Therefore, the polyols contribute to the transport of sugars and also act as powerful agents against any kind of stress. In Rosaceae, the formation of sorbitol and subsequent hydrogenation in fruit especially contributes to the increase of Brix degrees in the fruits.  

• Inhibiting degrading enzymes: one of the most extensive and important alterations induced by AMEC® is altering the activities of the chlorofilasa (Chlase), protease (Prot) and total peroxidases (TPOX) degrading enzymes; enzymes that are involved in the plants’ senescence process. Since AMEC inhibits them, it extends the plant’s metabolic activity period and productivity. 

• Increasing the Phenyl-PAL-Lyase-‘Ammonite enzyme activity that activates the plant’s biochemical response to exogenous pathogen attacks through a rapid formation of phenols and phytoalexins. This improves the plant’s self-defense system and increases its tolerance to other stresses. 

AMEC® is considered an organic molecule because:

• It is composed of elements naturally occurring in plants and it’s not a hormone. 

• It is biodegradable and does not leave any kind of specific residues in the final products (leaves, flowers, fruits).

• It is innocuous, i.e. it is in no way toxic to the plants or the environment, at recommended doses. 

• Since it is a safe molecule, it can also be classified as a GRAS compound, which are generally recognized as environmentally safe. 

In short, AMEC®: 

• Increases the plants osmotic potential: they absorb nutrients and water more efficiently through their roots.

• Increases water use efficiency in relation to the production of photosynthates.

• Increases photosynthetic capacity by increased CO2 fixation. 

Regarding soils, AMEC® allows: 

• Better assimilation of nutrients

• Increased water absorption.

• Greater control over the effects of salinity.

 Refrence: http: //www.freshplaza.com/article/155423/The-revolutionary-AMEC%C2%AE-molecule-arrives-to-Chile